Thursday 21 October 2021

Reversing Logical Nihilism - Forthcoming in Synthese

Final draft available on PhilPapers.

Abstract: Gillian Russell has recently proposed counterexamples to such elementary argument forms as Conjunction Introduction (e.g. ‘Snow is white. Grass is green. Therefore, snow is white and grass is green’) and Identity (e.g. ‘Snow is white. Therefore, snow is white’). These purported counterexamples involve expressions that are sensitive to linguistic context—for example, a sentence which is true when it appears alone but false when embedded in a larger sentence. If they are genuine counterexamples, it looks as though logical nihilism—the view that there are no valid argument forms—might be true. In this paper, I argue that the purported counterexamples are not genuine, on the grounds that they equivocate. Having defused the threat of logical nihilism, I argue that the kind of linguistic context sensitivity at work in Russell’s purported counterexamples, if taken seriously, far from leading to logical nihilism, reveals new, previously undreamt-of valid forms. By way of proof of concept I present a simple logic, Solo-Only Propositional Logic (SOPL), designed to capture some of them. Along the way, some interesting subtleties about the fallacy of equivocation are revealed.




21 comments:

  1. When I was 21, I found out I had genital herpes from the guy whom I lost my virginity with. I am 39 years old now and I had outbreaks maybe a few times a year. The last five years it’s been twice a year. I have take all kinds of medicines for it and it did not work. I meet an old friend thanking herbal doctor Williams for cure her, and i told her i want to be cure too, she give me herbal doctor William contact, i messaged him and tell him about my problem. Today i can tell the world herbal doctor Williams can put a stop to genital herpes. You can contact on Email: drwilliamscure@gmail.com. WhatsApp's Number: +2347040461868. Website: https://drwilliamscure.wixsite.com/herbalhome.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I WAS CURED OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS BY
      DR WATER, THE GREAT HERBALIST.
      i am so happy to share this testimony with the world because generally there are so many doubts about the cure of HERPES simplex virus. This is real take it serious, my name is HENRIETTE AMUNAZO and i am so happy that today i can give this testimony to the world and also help people who has been condemned just as i was. Who will believe that a herb can cure HERPES completely from the body?, i never believed that this will work, i have spend a lot of money getting drugs from the hospital to supress outbreaks, it got to a time that all i was wanted was death to come because i was broke and i already have strong outbreaks from the herpes virus. One day i was going through the internet asking questions online just to know more about the latest development in the medical sector to see if there is still hope then i stumbled on a post about this great man called DR WATER through an online friend who publicly made a testimony on how she was also cured of herpes simplex virus 2 by this herbal doctor who is well known for his strong ancient herbal practice for HERPES, HIV, WARTS and CANCER cure. At first i doubted both the woman and the doctor just as so many that see’s this post would doubt because medically it has been proven impossible but later i decided to give him a try so i emailed him. I did not believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try. He replied my mail and needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared a herbal medicine (CURE) and sent it through Online Courier Service for delivery. He gave my details to the Courier Office. They told me that 3-5 days I will receive the package and after receiving it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him at the end of 13days that the medcine lasted, he told me to go to the hospital for a test, and i went, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me Herpes simplex virus free, i thought it was a joke, i went to other hospitals and was also confirmed herpes free, i will say it was like a miracle. I waited to see if i will get any outbreaks again and its been 2 months now, i have not experienced any outbreak. Thank you sir for saving my life even if you cannot see this post, i shall never stop testifying the impact you made in my life by restoring back my life when i was being stigmatized and even avoided by family and friends. I promise I will always testify of your good works. if you are herpes simplex virus, HIV patient, Diabetes, human papilloma virus or genital warts, contact him and I am sure you will get cured, contact him via:
      email: Drwaterhivcurecentre@gmail.com
      or Call/whatsapp: +2349050205019
      THESE ARE THE THINGS DR WATER IS
      SPECIALISED
      . HERPES
      . HIV/AIDS
      . CANCER
      . GENITAL WARTS
      . KIDNEY STONES
      . ULCER
      . HEPATITIS B&C
      . PORT-RATE DISORDER
      . DIABETES
      . PROSTRATE CANCER
      . FIBRIOD, CYST
      . INFERTILITY [HUSBAND OR WIFE ]

      Delete
    2. Dr Ishiaku herbal medicine is mighty and genuine, I used Melissa oil and Lavender Healing herbs but result were just still the same but using Dr Ishiaku herbs cured my herpes final and I have being living for 2 years now No Sores.My herpes is truly gone.Contact him if you interested of his herbal medicine…he can aslo cure HIV, DIABETICS and other STDs
      You contact him on
      ­čô×WhatsApp +2348180828544
      ­čôžEmail: ishiakuherbalcure@yahoo.com

      Website:www.Ishiakuherbalcure.wordpress.com

      Delete
  2. It seems to me that Solo only-sentences behave a lot like ⊥, the absurdity constant.

    ReplyDelete
  3. When i first heard about herbal remedy i never believe on such word until i found dr ehi a great traditional doctor that was introduced to me by a friend that suffered from Hepatitis B and was cure with the help of this great herbal doctor ( Dr Oje Abach  ) so i decided to contact him for help in getting rid of my families genital herpes virus 1/2 which i did and all i was told to provide was just some useful information and some materials use in preparation of the natural cure and that i did and now i am the happiest person on earth because i am writing this testimony of mine with joy and happiness in my heart to the whole world to know that natural remedy is real because i am a living testimony of dr ehi's traditional herbal cure and i want you all to contact dr ehi via his email: oje.herbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com    or whatsapp him +2348114715925   or visit his website: https://ojeherbalsolutioncentre.wordpress.com   am sure he will help you too

    ReplyDelete
  4. I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring their doctor report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to DR.USELU, that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive or any STD diseases his email is: dr.uselucaregvier@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2347052898482

    ReplyDelete
  5. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS patient in the world i never believed that there could be any complete cure for Herpes or any cure for herpes,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how Dr OKITI prepare herbal cure and brought them back to their normal health again. i had to try it too and you wouldn't believe that in just a few weeks i started using it all my pains stopped gradually. Right now I can tell you that for a few months now I have not had any pain, and I just went for a test last week and the doctor confirmed that there is no trace of any herpes in my body. Glory be to God for leading me to this genuine Doctor Dr OKITI. I am so happy as I am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that there is no cure for herpes that it's Not true, Here is his email: drokitiherbalherbalhome100@gmail.com or WhatsApp number ‪+1 (484) 393‑5484‬

    ReplyDelete
  6. God is Good! I promised God that I would share my testimony on this website. I had all the signs of STD Virus but I was not too sure as to which one. I did a lot of online research and I WAS scared myself for a whole week before going to see the nurse. She took one look at my genital part and first said that it could just be the anatomy of my body, then she said it looked like genital warts and that I MAY have herpes. I was devastated. She gave me some medicine for the herpes and some cream for the warts. I was also tested for every single STD including herpes. I went home and cried searching the web for all sorts of cures for herpes and awaiting my results. I saw a post whereby Dr. Razor cured Herpes and other diseases, I copied his contacts out and added him on WhatsApp via +2349065420442. The next day my test result was ready and I confirmed Herpes positive. I told Dr. Razor about my health problems and he assured me of a cure. He prepared his herbal medicine and sent it to me. I took it for 18 days . Before the completion of the 18 days in which I completed the dose, the Blisters and Warts that were on my body were cleared. I went back for a check-up and I was told I'm free from the virus. Dr. Razor cures all types of diseases and viruses with the help of his herbal medicine. You can reach Dr. Razor via his email address on (drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com) WhatsApp +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  7. Are you desperately wondering, "How to get your husband\wife back?" after much time has passed without your lover coming back to you? Right now you are stuck in a very desperate situation, as your mind feels exhausted, while your body is willing to go to any extent to get your lover back why not contact Dr. Abolo spell whose email is: Abolospell@gmail.com and get that your relationship restored within a lightning speed.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Are you battling with any health related issues or infection is not the end of your life, why not contact a herbal practitioner for cure Dr OLIHA has herbal remedies and permanent solution for all your health related problems. recommend him to you today only because i have also used his herbal medicine and it worked perfectly on my health problem, you can actually save yourself from giving your hard earned money to Scammers if only you can contact Dr OLIHA today for genuine and Permanent cure herbal products . Pls help share this post to save yourself and your love ones. Dr OLIHA is specialize in these areas, Permanent herbal supplements for anxiety and depression, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, Epilepsy, Blood, Cancer, HPV, ALS, herpes etc. Email {oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com}  or WhatsApp him on this Tell.Number +2349038382931

    ReplyDelete
  9. Dr Ishiaku herbal medicine is mighty and genuine, I used Melissa oil and Lavender Healing herbs but result were just still the same but using Dr Ishiaku herbs cured my herpes final and I have being living for 2 years now No Sores.My herpes is truly gone.Contact him if you interested of his herbal medicine…he can aslo cure HIV, DIABETICS and other STDs
    You contact him on
    ­čô×WhatsApp +2348180828544
    ­čôžEmail: ishiakuherbalcure@yahoo.com

    Website:www.Ishiakuherbalcure.wordpress.com

    ReplyDelete
  10. How can i keep shut after beating herpes that has been marked incurable by the medical doctors ! herbal Dr Ogudugu on YouTube helped me cure the herpes simplex permanently with his roots and herbs supplement remedy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QtbZBD5BRBM&t=2s

    Website: https://greatogudugu.wixsite.com/website

    ReplyDelete
  11. Hello everyone... Dr Ishiaku herbs is a good remedy for herpes Virus , I was a carrier of herpes virus and I saw a testimony on how Dr. Ishiaku cure Herpes Virus, I decided to contact him, and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. After he finish he sent me the herbs which i took for 2 weeks before asking me to go for a check up and getting there i could not believe that i was confirm HSV 2 Negative after the test, Today i am so happy because I'm free from herpes disease with the help of Dr. Ishiaku . Thank God now everything is fine, I'm cured by Dr. Ishiaku herbal medicine, I'm very thankful to God for making it possible. you can reach him on his email, i strongly recommend him to any one out here looking for a cure to herpes or any other deadly disease...Contact Dr ishiaku via email: ishiakuherbalcure@gmail.com or whats-app +2348180828544

    ReplyDelete
  12. I was diagnosed of HERPES Virus in 2020 and I have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medication to cure all kind of diseases including HERPES virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try , when i contact this herbalist and he prepared a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me via FEDEX delivery company service, when i received this herbal cure, he gave me step by directions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was totally cured of this horrible disease within 14days of usage, i went to the hospital for a test and it was negative. I can tell the public now that I am now free from the horrible disease called herpes, all thanks to Dr. OLIHA that is why I want to leave his email address and What's app contact just if you want to contact him for help. you reach this great herbal doctor via his call or WhatsApp on +2349038382931 email on (oliha.miraclemedicine@gmail.com) website on: https://olihamiraclemedicine.webs.com/ ....

    ReplyDelete
  13. Hello, I am 25 years old and I first found out I had herpes 3 years ago. My first outbreak was definitely the worst thing I ever experienced. The bumps and blisters were swollen and red. I had a doctor give me Valtrex but I take the generic. I love the Valtrex because I take 1 gram a day for about a week and it's gone. I had a doctor prescribe me Acyclovir but that gave me the worst headaches ever, so I stopped taking it. Since I was first diagnosed I have about 2 outbreaks a year. I have been able to cope with this by having supportive family and friends who look out for me. Even though I wish I never had this disease at all, I’m able to deal with it and have a great life. A friend advised me to use herbal medicine and sent me an email (dandancure787@gmail.com) who was able to help me put an end to the herpes virus. Today I am so happy and totally free in case you need urgent help to email him for a fast cure. (dandancure787@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete
  14. I was cured of HERPES with the use of natural herbs. I love herbs so much. Most times, injections and drugs are just a waste of time. I was cured 8months ago, i suffered from Herpes for 2 years but with the help of Priest Babaka herbal medicine, I was cured within a few weeks of drinking the herbs He sent to me through courier delivery service. This same Priest also cured my Aunt from INFERTILITY, as soon as I heard she Been finding it difficult to CONCEIVE, i referred her to the Priest and she was cured after drinking his herbs. I have referred more than 15 persons and they were all cured from their various illness. Have you taken herbs before?. You have spent so much money on drugs, injections, surgeries etc and yet you have no good result to show for it. Priest Babaka is a Herbalist and a Spiritualist , I assure you of a cure if you drink his natural herbs and follow his Guidance. He has herbs that cures HIV, Herpes, Diabetics, Asthma, Hepatitis, etc. Contact Priest Babaka on email: babaka.wolf@gmail.com or Facebook at priest.babaka

    ReplyDelete
  15. Hello everyone, Now this is to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solution. I bring you Good news.There is a man called Dr.Ayomide a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from Genital herpes,this i had suffered from for the past 2years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it.I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine he sent to me to drink for about 9days.3days after completion of the dosage,I went for a medical checkup and I was tested Genital Herpes NEGATIVE.I'm sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr Ayomide because I got to know him through a friend he cured from HIV.I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections.Don't die in ignorance and don't let that illness take your life.Contact Dr Ayomide through his email address=ayomideherbalhome@gmail.com You can also call him or WhatsApp him on:+2348062443909 Thank you Dr. Ayomide. Be kind enough to share as you received.

    ReplyDelete
  16. After my husband of 16 years broke up with me, I could barely speak without crying. I felt blindsided and didn't know what to do. I didn't know if I could get him back and the anxiety was unbearable. I contacted Dr Ozigidon on Whats-App via [+2349054750112], not knowing fully what to expect but knowing I needed somebody who had been there for others before. I wanted our marriage back and so I wanted to make sure I had all the guidance and resources possible to do that. Dr Ozigidon was simply wonderful. His presence is calming and I could tell that he genuinely cared. With his powerful spell he suggested I do to get [my husband] back seemed difficult. But I knew I wanted to get him back, so I followed and did all that was required for the spell that Dr Ozigidon laid out for me. Within the week, we were back together as easily as I never thought and we are so in love! I know that it doesn't always happen that quickly, in my case, it could happen that soon - and it did! I'm so grateful and can say that if you have been broken up with and want to get that person back, Dr Ozigidon is the best! I'll never forget how much he helped me! His email: [drozigidonhenz.spell.net@gmail.com]

    ReplyDelete
  17. Contact Dr Ozigidon if you have been trying to conceive, I never thought I'd be writing this message but after 5 years of infertility and nearly lost my marriage due to not being able to have a child after suffering from PCOS and my TUBES ARE TIED, and severe endometriosis and scanning, I was told that IVF was the only option. This was something we could not afford and had almost given up hope of becoming a parent. A friend of mine recommended Dr Ozigidon to me and persuaded me to contact him, I finally contacted him and he made a spiritual breakthrough to get me pregnant with his powerful spell, within 2 weeks I was pregnant (naturally!!!) and my tube was untied as instructed by this powerful sorcerer. Now! I gave birth to healthy twins in February. I am writing this testimony for those women who are facing the same challenges or even more, depressed with no light at the end of the tunnel. Give Dr Ozigidon a try to help you solve your problem, and hopefully you'll have the same success that I have had. His email address (drozigidonhnez.spell.net@gmail.com) . Call or Whats-App him +2349054750112. I wish you all happiness in your marriage.

    ReplyDelete

  18. I am free from HERPES ...................

    You can reach this herbal doctor…[robinsonbuckler (@) yahoo.com].

    This is AWESOME!!,!.

    Sure Treatment!!

    My heart is so filled with joy.

    ReplyDelete