Thursday, 21 October 2021

Reversing Logical Nihilism - Forthcoming in Synthese

Final draft available on PhilPapers.

Abstract: Gillian Russell has recently proposed counterexamples to such elementary argument forms as Conjunction Introduction (e.g. ‘Snow is white. Grass is green. Therefore, snow is white and grass is green’) and Identity (e.g. ‘Snow is white. Therefore, snow is white’). These purported counterexamples involve expressions that are sensitive to linguistic context—for example, a sentence which is true when it appears alone but false when embedded in a larger sentence. If they are genuine counterexamples, it looks as though logical nihilism—the view that there are no valid argument forms—might be true. In this paper, I argue that the purported counterexamples are not genuine, on the grounds that they equivocate. Having defused the threat of logical nihilism, I argue that the kind of linguistic context sensitivity at work in Russell’s purported counterexamples, if taken seriously, far from leading to logical nihilism, reveals new, previously undreamt-of valid forms. By way of proof of concept I present a simple logic, Solo-Only Propositional Logic (SOPL), designed to capture some of them. Along the way, some interesting subtleties about the fallacy of equivocation are revealed.




15 comments:

  1. When I was 21, I found out I had genital herpes from the guy whom I lost my virginity with. I am 39 years old now and I had outbreaks maybe a few times a year. The last five years it’s been twice a year. I have take all kinds of medicines for it and it did not work. I meet an old friend thanking herbal doctor Williams for cure her, and i told her i want to be cure too, she give me herbal doctor William contact, i messaged him and tell him about my problem. Today i can tell the world herbal doctor Williams can put a stop to genital herpes. You can contact on Email: drwilliamscure@gmail.com. WhatsApp's Number: +2347040461868. Website: https://drwilliamscure.wixsite.com/herbalhome.

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    1. Natural herbs can cure epilepsy, I had epilepsy for over 9 years, i have spent a lot money getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, I went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, One day I was in the office going through the internet when I saw a post about Dr Sayo herbal medicine on how he cure a Lady from UK who was suffering from HIV and she listed Epilepsy as list of illness Dr Sayo can as well cured I contacted him with epilepsy Cure solution, I email him. He told me the things I need to do and also give me instructions on how to take the herbal cure, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after 3 weeks To my greatest surprise after patiently going according to instruction given to me by Dr Sayo, my epilepsy was cure, I want to say a big thanks to Dr Sayo who God have sent to heal his people with his natural medicine I pray that God will bless you for the good work you are doing.for all who are still suffering from this illness, you can also contact him through his email on:;;  sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com  or whatsapp him +2349012175679 visit his website: http://sayoherbalhome.com/  or visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/SayoHerbalHealer like they say his herbal remedy is the only permanent solution to Seizure. He Can as well cure the following... Herpes Virus, HIV/Aids, Hepatitis A/B, Shingles, Cold Sore, Epilepsy, Wart, Lupus, Diabetes, Men/Woman Infertility, Seizure, Cancer all types.

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    2. I WAS CURED OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS BY
      DR WATER, THE GREAT HERBALIST.
      i am so happy to share this testimony with the world because generally there are so many doubts about the cure of HERPES simplex virus. This is real take it serious, my name is HENRIETTE AMUNAZO and i am so happy that today i can give this testimony to the world and also help people who has been condemned just as i was. Who will believe that a herb can cure HERPES completely from the body?, i never believed that this will work, i have spend a lot of money getting drugs from the hospital to supress outbreaks, it got to a time that all i was wanted was death to come because i was broke and i already have strong outbreaks from the herpes virus. One day i was going through the internet asking questions online just to know more about the latest development in the medical sector to see if there is still hope then i stumbled on a post about this great man called DR WATER through an online friend who publicly made a testimony on how she was also cured of herpes simplex virus 2 by this herbal doctor who is well known for his strong ancient herbal practice for HERPES, HIV, WARTS and CANCER cure. At first i doubted both the woman and the doctor just as so many that see’s this post would doubt because medically it has been proven impossible but later i decided to give him a try so i emailed him. I did not believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try. He replied my mail and needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared a herbal medicine (CURE) and sent it through Online Courier Service for delivery. He gave my details to the Courier Office. They told me that 3-5 days I will receive the package and after receiving it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him at the end of 13days that the medcine lasted, he told me to go to the hospital for a test, and i went, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me Herpes simplex virus free, i thought it was a joke, i went to other hospitals and was also confirmed herpes free, i will say it was like a miracle. I waited to see if i will get any outbreaks again and its been 2 months now, i have not experienced any outbreak. Thank you sir for saving my life even if you cannot see this post, i shall never stop testifying the impact you made in my life by restoring back my life when i was being stigmatized and even avoided by family and friends. I promise I will always testify of your good works. if you are herpes simplex virus, HIV patient, Diabetes, human papilloma virus or genital warts, contact him and I am sure you will get cured, contact him via:
      email: Drwaterhivcurecentre@gmail.com
      or Call/whatsapp: +2349050205019
      THESE ARE THE THINGS DR WATER IS
      SPECIALISED
      . HERPES
      . HIV/AIDS
      . CANCER
      . GENITAL WARTS
      . KIDNEY STONES
      . ULCER
      . HEPATITIS B&C
      . PORT-RATE DISORDER
      . DIABETES
      . PROSTRATE CANCER
      . FIBRIOD, CYST
      . INFERTILITY [HUSBAND OR WIFE ]

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    3. INDEED DR SAYO HERBAL HEALER HAS THE CURE FOR FOLLOWING HERPES VIRUS, HIV/AIDS, CANCER ALL TYPES, DIABETES, HEPATITIS A/B, PAD, ETC......FOR MORE INFORMATION VISIT HIS WEBSITE: http://sayoherbalhome.com/ I was once a victim of the herpes virus with many symptoms on my body, I was cured of the virus thanks to the help of Dr Sayo herbal medicine. I saw most of his patient testimonials on blogs and social media pages, cured of various disease/virus and illnesses. I contacted him on his email address to which he replied and asked me a few questions and the preparation method for which I paid, he sent me the herbal medicines and instructions on how to take it I apply the herbal medicine for 4 weeks and the symptoms on my body were healed after taking the herbal medicine treatment, I went for test and my result was negative with know trace of virus in my blood and am completely cured. You can also be cured, contact him on his email:  sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com  or WhatsApp him on +2349012175679 or visit his facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/SayoHerbalHealer

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  2. Quick Cure I will advise you to contact Dr KHAM AT (dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com )
    Where all problems are solved without stress and delay. My family was getting drawn into sickness, we were all affected one after the other and medical prescriptions were not helping us. Till a friend's doctor directs us to contact Dr KHAM for quick cure and total cleaning. Dr KHAM is a miracle worker. It is never too late with Dr KHAM contact him today with { dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com } you can also contact him on Whatsapp +2348159922297, You can Also Visit his website to know more about him at > https://herbal-dr-kham.jimdosite.com/ or visit his Blog at https://drkhamcaregiver.blogspot.com/
    He also Cure
    1) HIV/Aids Virus
    2) Hepatitis B and C
    3) Herpes
    4) Cancer
    5) ZIKA VIRUS
    6) COPD
    7) STROKE.
    8) Erectile Dysfunction
    9) Trichinosis
    10) Chlamydia
    11) Gonorrhea
    12) HPV
    13) Syphilis

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  3. It seems to me that Solo only-sentences behave a lot like ⊥, the absurdity constant.

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  4. True life story that happened May 12th 2019..... I never believed in herbal cure,and i have spend lot of money and time in trying to get drugs from the hospital/clinic to get cured of my Herpes virus which i suffered from for 3 years and i was tired of ( acyclovir and valacyclovir ) drugs, herpes is a serious and recurring disease which can't be cured through drugs or injections by the American doctors but the best way to deal with herpes is by taking natural herbs medicine for it and is only few American doctors that know about this herbal medicine .. I have read about Dr Kham the great herbalist doctor from Africa who can cure disease with his powerful herbal medicine made with different combinations of natural roots, leaves and steams. For the people suffering from the following diseases, Herpes, Cancer, Als, Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV, Infertility Infections ETC should contact him for his herbal medicine because I am a living testimony and I was cured of herpes. Although, I sent him what he requested and he sent me his herbal medicine which I took for 2 weeks and today when I went for a test I was tested for herpes negative. you can reach him through his email dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or WhatsApp number:+2348159922297 or You can get in touch with him on his website: https://drkhamcaregiver.wixsite.com/drkhamcaregiverherba He will help you out

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  5. When i first heard about herbal remedy i never believe on such word until i found dr ehi a great traditional doctor that was introduced to me by a friend that suffered from Hepatitis B and was cure with the help of this great herbal doctor ( Dr Oje Abach  ) so i decided to contact him for help in getting rid of my families genital herpes virus 1/2 which i did and all i was told to provide was just some useful information and some materials use in preparation of the natural cure and that i did and now i am the happiest person on earth because i am writing this testimony of mine with joy and happiness in my heart to the whole world to know that natural remedy is real because i am a living testimony of dr ehi's traditional herbal cure and i want you all to contact dr ehi via his email: oje.herbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com    or whatsapp him +2348114715925   or visit his website: https://ojeherbalsolutioncentre.wordpress.com   am sure he will help you too

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  6. Herbalist Doc. Kham Miracle Herbal Medicine is The Best, It Helps Me to Eradicate My Herpes Virus Just in Two Weeks, Advice! Advice!! Advice!!! I know lot of people having herpes virus where all thought it has no cure, but am here to let you know that it was a huge lie, Because the world health organization wants to keep extorting money from citizen by telling us in the hospital herpes simplex virus and other kinds of disease like (HPV) has no cure but only vaccine to control and not to cure. Today am here as a living testimony of herbal cure that was prepare to me by herbalist Doc. Kham who is a herbal doctor that can cure all kinds of disease and virus in 2 weeks, His medication cured me from herpes after two complete dosages. God has sent us this great opportunity to get herpes virus from our body system with the help of Doc. Kham herbal cure, just give him a trial and never regret it because he is 100% guaranteed of the cure kindly contact him on (dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com), or He is a very honest man to work with you call his Mobile phone number or WhatsApp Him on +234 815 992 2297‬ visit his website on https://drkhamcaregiver.wixsite.com/drkhamcaregiverherba

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  7. Please listen to this man! Called Herbalist Dr. Kham His Herbal Medication cured my genital warts in less than two weeks! I thought I would never be able to live without the warts ever again and now I do. I was cured of my long term genital herpes after using herbal medicine from Herbalist Dr. Kham. I’m so happy and God bless you for all you do and getting people cured from herpes disease, I’m so glad to be amongst the people you’ve cured from Herpes this year. I cherish you forever Doctor. Please please please believe him and do whatever he says. Herb is really the best and probably only cure to herpes. And please don’t be too nice to yourself. Herpes is a serious thing. Stick to the regimen, stop smoking and cut out Alcohol and stay away from any sweetened foods or candies as his herb medicine doesn’t work effectively with sugar or sugary foods and drinks. One week of not consuming some stuff or the rest of your life with herpes simplex virus. It’s your choice. And trust me, I tried just cutting out cigarettes and alcohol though it wasn’t easy as I’m addicted to smoking and drinking of alcohol. Once I stopped doing both and all of what the doctor instructed me not to do and taking my herb medicine the improvement was magical! I was cured from my genital warts/herpes in two week of using this Herbalist Dr. Kham herb remedy. All in all, thank you doctor! You helped me get my healing and life back. God bless you. Email him Via dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or WhatsApp him via +2348159922297. Here is his Website too https://herbal-dr-kham.jimdosite.com/

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  8. Good day everyone, Am I really happy that i and my husband are cured of (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of Dr. Williams, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 7 month without solution until i came across the testimony and email of this Dr. Williams who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, i contacted him and tell him my problem, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he send us his herbal medicine and direct us on how to use it, We also follows his instruction on how to go for a check up after 3 weeks and which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like Dr. William who is ready to help anytime any day. to all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting, and give this great herbal Dr. a chance to help you, contact this Dr. and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me. You can contact him on Email: drwilliamscure@gmail.com. WhatsApp Number: +2347040461868. His Website: https://drwilliamscure.wixsite.com/herbalhome

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  9. I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring their doctor report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to DR.USELU, that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive or any STD diseases his email is: dr.uselucaregvier@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2347052898482

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  10. I have been Diagnosed with Hsv2 for some years,i did everything within my powers to see that i could get rid of it, Tried everything possible But all was in vain, I almost gave up cause i really tried my best i was scammed, lied to, forsaken, HSV2 became a threat to my life. On a very good Monday morning, I came across a contact of a Natural herbal healer called DR.USELU Online. I decided to contact and tell him about my problems and all that has happened in my past before meeting him. Behold he promised that everything will be fine and my problems will be solved, few days Later he prepared a natural herbal medicine which he sent to me and as i followed his instructions on how to take the herbs and how long i was going to take it (2 Weeks)....Today i am completely cured and free from HSV2 and my Life have been perfect since then. Pls , If you need his help, Contact him on email; dr.uselucaregvier@gmail.com or whatsapp:+2347052898482 you can also check his websites https://druseluherbalhome.simdif.com/ for more info about DR.USELU and be rest assured that you will definitely be cured as i was cured from HSV2 or any illness, cause he also taught me that there is no such thing as incurable disease. only the lack of will and that nature has given us everything we need to be healthy.

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  11. INDEED DR SAYO HERBAL HEALER HAS THE CURE FOR FOLLOWING HERPES VIRUS, HIV/AIDS, CANCER ALL TYPES, DIABETES, HEPATITIS A/B, PAD, ETC......FOR MORE INFORMATION VISIT HIS WEBSITE: http://sayoherbalhome.com/ I was once a victim of the herpes virus with many symptoms on my body, I was cured of the virus thanks to the help of Dr Sayo herbal medicine. I saw most of his patient testimonials on blogs and social media pages, cured of various disease/virus and illnesses. I contacted him on his email address to which he replied and asked me a few questions and the preparation method for which I paid, he sent me the herbal medicines and instructions on how to take it I apply the herbal medicine for 4 weeks and the symptoms on my body were healed after taking the herbal medicine treatment, I went for test and my result was negative with know trace of virus in my blood and am completely cured. You can also be cured, contact him on his email:  sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com  or WhatsApp him on +2349012175679 or visit his facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/SayoHerbalHealer

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  12. I go by the name Alex Scout, i am here to give my testimony about a herbal called Dr Williams who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2017, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a virus out so that my body can be okay.So One day I went online on the internet to know more clue about the Herpes Simplex Virus i came across a review of a man called Steven saying that he got his Herpes Simplex Virus cured by A herbal Called Dr Williams, And he also went as far to drop an Email Address: drwilliamscure@gmail.com and advise anyone to contact Dr Williams for any kind of help. So i gave a try by contacting him through his email address and explain my problem to him. He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take the herbal medicine , which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after 21 days the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken by any deadly diseases like HERPES, HIV, HEPATITIS B/HEPATITIS C, TUBERCULOSIS, COPD,low sperm count or bringing back your ex lover, this great man is extremely the best in which I have seen and applauds and he the best i have seen.You can contact on Email: drwilliamscure@gmail.com. Whats App's Number: +2347040461868. Website: https://drwilliamscure.wixsite.com/herbalhome


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