Friday, 3 December 2021

The Threefold Root of the How-Question About Mathematical Knowledge

Platonism is the default, almost obviously correct view about mathematical objects. One of the major things that puts pressure on Platonism is the question 'How do we know about mathematical objects, then?'. What gives this question its power? I think three things conspire and that the third might be under-appreciated:

1. Real justificatory demands internal to mathematical discourse. For particular mathematical claims, there are very real 'How do we know?' questions, and they have substantive mathematical answers. The impulse to ask the question then gets generalized to mathematical knowledge in general, except that then there's no substantial answer.

2. A feeling of impossibility engendered by a causal theory of knowledge. If you only think about certain kinds of knowledge, it can seem plausible that, in general, the way we get to know about things is via their causal impacts on us. This then makes mathematical knowledge seem impossible.

3. Our deeply-ingrained habit of giving reasons. The social impulse to justify one's claims to another is hacked by a monster: the philosophical question at the heart of the epistemology of mathematics.

If it were just 1 and 2 getting tangled up with each other, the how-question would not be so persistent. With existing philosophical understanding we'd be able to see our way past it. But 3 hasn't been excavated yet and that keeps the whole thing going.

18 comments:

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    Replies
    1. I WAS CURED OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS BY DR WATER, THE GREAT HERBALIST. 🌿☘️
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    2. So many technological advances, and they still cannot discover the effective vaccine against HIV, Cancer, Diabetes, herpes ? And the Covid19 vaccines, is that even effective? ... They spend all resources researching and producing weapons to kill more people. More medical science advancements, and less weapon production is the way to go, and this will make human being a truly intelligent being. I advise people to start looking to alternative cure to their illness like natural roots and herbs, rather than putting all their hopes on these scientist who seems to prioritize weapons of mass destruction over vital medicines to save lives. Natural herbal medicine might just be all you need to get rid of those your reoccurring health issues or illnesses that these scientist refused to provide solutions to. I have used natural herbal medicines from Dr.Water to cure several people, where those pharmaceutical drugs have failed, Dr.Water herbal medicine has done the job effortlessly. We can not continue to live with HIV, Diabetes, Herpes, genital warts, cancer, hepatitis B , until they eventually take our lives because our scientist have failed to find the right solution, when there are very effective herbal cures to all these illnesses and you don't even need to spend much money to get these remedies. For now i am recommending only Dr.Water herbal medicine for whoever is interested, this is his WHATS-APP : +2349050205019. there are still other nice herbal remedies out there, yes i tired few also, but that of Dr.Water is the one i have confirmed to be the most effective of them all.

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    3. We had everything we wanted as a family except good health. I had to do this for the benefit of those who still doubt the efficacy of genuine herbal medicines just as my dad doubted the moment i came with the news of Dr.WHITE been able to cure Herpes Virus. Unlike Mum, dad is a (RACIST) who never believed something good could come from the black race. I was beautiful and adventurous but when I had herpes infection spreading in my body like wide fire at a time Dad was battling HIV it was like a dark cloud covering my family. For many years i suffered pain and shame. I decided to surf the internet for alternative cure which lead me to Dr. WHITE whatsapp +2349091844595 a powerful but humble herbalist and healer who promised to cure me and kept to his words. This man is another Daddy from a different nation. At first I was skeptical, I asked him both relevant and irrelevant questions but he was patient to prove my medical doctors and dad wrong who said no cure. Haven made every arrangement; he prepared and sent the cure to me through Courier express service which I received at door step. In 2weeks of using his cure my symptoms disappeared and I was well again though the prescription was for a month. All thanks to Dr. White who put integrity and human sympathy above material things. I had read many testimonies of those who benefited from Dr. WHITE medicines, this actually prompted me to write him but today, I’m herpes free and Dad is HIV negative haven seen my case and got convinced to use herbal cure. Heavenly thanks to Dr. WHITE for restoring our Joy. Call Dr. White for HIV, Herpes, Hepatitis, Infertility, Diabetes and Cancer Cure. bless you
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    4. I was diagnosed of HSV (Herpes) few years ago and my doctor told me there was no permanent cure for the disease. I was given medication to slow down the progress of the virus. At the initial stage it was not so bad till it progressed to a stage were i had difficulties going about my daily activities because i constantly felt pains in my penis, and around my genital were i had these blisters. I was totally devastated and i was even ashamed to complain to anyone. I saw a publication about a doctor called Dr.Water, and from what i read, he was using herbal medicines to cure illnesses like HERPES, Human papillomavirus, ALS, Diabetes, HIV, and so on. I opted to contacted him via email, after a few dicussion, i ordered for his medicine. He prepared the medicine and shipped it to me. When i received the herbal medicine, I took it according to his instructions. After using it as instructed, few weeks later i went to the hospital to have a blood test and the test came out negetive. To my greatest surprise, i was cured of this stubborn virus just by using a simple herbal product.
      That is why i am here sharing my testimony as much as i can to create as much awareness as possible so that people can also benefit and be cured too. contact him for help, via his email: {DRWATERHIVCURECENTRE@GMAIL.COM} or WhatsApp (+2349050205019). this is my persona email: marianosuarezsm@gmail.com, you add me on hangout

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    5. IGNORANCE IS A MAJOR HUMAN HEALTH CHALLENGE

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      Face book: Jason Gilbert

      Delete
  2. I go by the name Alex Scout, i am here to give my testimony about a herbal called Dr Williams who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2017, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a virus out so that my body can be okay.So One day I went online on the internet to know more clue about the Herpes Simplex Virus i came across a review of a man called Steven saying that he got his Herpes Simplex Virus cured by A herbal Called Dr Williams, And he also went as far to drop an Email Address: drwilliamscure@gmail.com and advise anyone to contact Dr Williams for any kind of help. So i gave a try by contacting him through his email address and explain my problem to him. He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take the herbal medicine , which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after 21 days the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished . so if you are also heart broken by any deadly diseases like HERPES, HIV, HEPATITIS B/HEPATITIS C, TUBERCULOSIS, COPD,low sperm count or bringing back your ex lover, this great man is extremely the best in which I have seen and applauds and he the best i have seen.You can contact on Email: drwilliamscure@gmail.com. Whats App's Number: +2347040461868. Website: https://drwilliamscure.wixsite.com/herbalhome


    ReplyDelete
  3. I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS patient in the world i never believed that there could be any complete cure for Herpes or any cure for herpes,i saw people’s testimony on blog sites of how Dr OKITI prepare herbal cure and brought them back to their normal health again. i had to try it too and you wouldn't believe that in just a few weeks i started using it all my pains stopped gradually. Right now I can tell you that for a few months now I have not had any pain, and I just went for a test last week and the doctor confirmed that there is no trace of any herpes in my body. Glory be to God for leading me to this genuine Doctor Dr OKITI. I am so happy as I am sharing this testimony. My advice to you all who thinks that there is no cure for herpes that it's Not true, Here is his email: drokitiherbalherbalhome100@gmail.com or WhatsApp number ‪+1 (484) 393‑5484‬

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  4. Herbalist Dr. Kham Fast & Complete Permanent Cure To HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS HSV1 & HSV2 Within Just Two weeks Of Using His Powerful 100% Effective Herbal Medication. Suffering from herpes is a Terrible Experience which I suffered till I met a herbal doctor called Herbal Dr. Kham. I tried all possible means to get cured but I never received a cure from any of the 7 hospitals I visited. Just July,21,2020 I saw a recent post of how Herbalist Dr. Kham herbal medicine cured people and that he is a honest man to work with in the procedures on finding a cure, then i contacted him in trial and he sent me a herbal medicine with the full prescription oh how to drink for two weeks and i exactly followed the guidelines that was given to me by Dr. Kham to cut the long story short the herbal medicine flushed out my whole system and make the herpes virus inactive in my nervous system, All thanks to Dr. Kham who God is using to cure people of this terrible virus (herpes simplex virus) for anyone here that has herpes or other kinds of disease and Virus should mail all his or her complain to Dr. Kham on his email which is (dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com) You can call or WhatsApp him on +2348159922297 For more Information kindly visit his Website: drkhamcaregiver.wixsite.com/drkhamcaregiverherba

    ReplyDelete
  5. I was cured of herpes simplex and of the deeply ingrained habit of asking for reasons and demand explanations by a simple consideration about the PSR. According to this so called principle, there always is a sufficient reason that explains a phenomenon. However, PSR can't explain itself. What would be the reason for the validity of PSR? Perhaps a higher order PSR? But in that case we seem to be on our way into an infinite regress, so that can't be a solution, no more than the various attempted solutions to cure herpes simplex at the hospitals I used tpo visit before I discovered the cure of Dr Okiti.

    ReplyDelete
  6. God is Good! I promised God that I would share my testimony on this website. I had all the signs of STD Virus but I was not too sure as to which one. I did a lot of online research and I WAS scared myself for a whole week before going to see the nurse. She took one look at my genital part and first said that it could just be the anatomy of my body, then she said it looked like genital warts and that I MAY have herpes. I was devastated. She gave me some medicine for the herpes and some cream for the warts. I was also tested for every single STD including herpes. I went home and cried searching the web for all sorts of cures for herpes and awaiting my results. I saw a post whereby Dr. Razor cured Herpes and other diseases, I copied his contacts out and added him on WhatsApp via +2349065420442. The next day my test result was ready and I confirmed Herpes positive. I told Dr. Razor about my health problems and he assured me of a cure. He prepared his herbal medicine and sent it to me. I took it for 18 days . Before the completion of the 18 days in which I completed the dose, the Blisters and Warts that were on my body were cleared. I went back for a check-up and I was told I'm free from the virus. Dr. Razor cures all types of diseases and viruses with the help of his herbal medicine. You can reach Dr. Razor via his email address on (drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com) WhatsApp +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  7. So many technological advances, and they still cannot discover the effective vaccine against HIV, Cancer, Diabetes, herpes ? And the Covid19 vaccines, is that even effective? ... They spend all resources researching and producing weapons to kill more people. More medical science advancements, and less weapon production is the way to go, and this will make human being a truly intelligent being. I advise people to start looking to alternative cure to their illness like natural roots and herbs, rather than putting all their hopes on these scientist who seems to prioritize weapons of mass destruction over vital medicines to save lives. Natural herbal medicine might just be all you need to get rid of those your reoccurring health issues or illnesses that these scientist refused to provide solutions to. I have used natural herbal medicines from Dr.Water to cure several people, where those pharmaceutical drugs have failed, Dr.Water herbal medicine has done the job effortlessly. We can not continue to live with HIV, Diabetes, Herpes, genital warts, cancer, hepatitis B , until they eventually take our lives because our scientist have failed to find the right solution, when there are very effective herbal cures to all these illnesses and you don't even need to spend much money to get these remedies. For now i am recommending only Dr.Water herbal medicine for whoever is interested, this is his WHATS-APP : +2349050205019. there are still other nice herbal remedies out there, yes i tired few also, but that of Dr.Water is the one i have confirmed to be the most effective of them all.

    ReplyDelete
  8. We had everything we wanted as a family except good health. I had to do this for the benefit of those who still doubt the efficacy of genuine herbal medicines just as my dad doubted the moment i came with the news of Dr.WHITE been able to cure Herpes Virus. Unlike Mum, dad is a (RACIST) who never believed something good could come from the black race. I was beautiful and adventurous but when I had herpes infection spreading in my body like wide fire at a time Dad was battling HIV it was like a dark cloud covering my family. For many years i suffered pain and shame. I decided to surf the internet for alternative cure which lead me to Dr. WHITE whatsapp +2349091844595 a powerful but humble herbalist and healer who promised to cure me and kept to his words. This man is another Daddy from a different nation. At first I was skeptical, I asked him both relevant and irrelevant questions but he was patient to prove my medical doctors and dad wrong who said no cure. Haven made every arrangement; he prepared and sent the cure to me through Courier express service which I received at door step. In 2weeks of using his cure my symptoms disappeared and I was well again though the prescription was for a month. All thanks to Dr. White who put integrity and human sympathy above material things. I had read many testimonies of those who benefited from Dr. WHITE medicines, this actually prompted me to write him but today, I’m herpes free and Dad is HIV negative haven seen my case and got convinced to use herbal cure. Heavenly thanks to Dr. WHITE for restoring our Joy. Call Dr. White for HIV, Herpes, Hepatitis, Infertility, Diabetes and Cancer Cure. bless you
    Email/ DRWHITETHEHIVHEALER@GMAIL.COM

    ReplyDelete
  9. IGNORANCE IS A MAJOR HUMAN HEALTH CHALLENGE

    I am Jason, a Swiss national. Your biggest enemy might be fear, uncertainty, the mistakes others have made in the past, or even stories told by others who have never made a real effort to seek better health. At 39, my dreams were almost shattered as I had lived with HIV for 6 years due to a month-long relationship with a former high school lover. All thanks to Dr WHITE thanks to whom I was healed and my light was rekindled. I was devastated, I stopped dreaming, hope was lost but my decision to try an herbal remedy after researching online brought me back to life. So when your doctor tells you that there is no cure for viral infections, you are telling yourself to hell. Today I did a series of confirmatory HIV tests and everything has proven that I am sober. Protect yourself from HIV, Herpes, HPV, Hepatitis and more by contacting Dr White on Whatsapp 00234-9091-844595. Her medications have no side effects, can be mailed to you, no hidden charges, and are taken for a few weeks for full recovery. I have posted this in many forums and a lot of people and called me to say thank you. Together we can save and love once endless antiretroviral drugs with so many side effects.
    Face book: Jason Gilbert

    ReplyDelete
  10. How can i keep shut after beating herpes that has been marked incurable by the medical doctors ! herbal Dr Ogudugu on YouTube helped me cure the herpes simplex permanently with his roots and herbs supplement remedy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QtbZBD5BRBM&t=2s

    Website: https://greatogudugu.wixsite.com/website

    ReplyDelete
  11. Quick Cure I will advise you to contact Dr Kham Herbal Remedies, Where all problems are solved without stress and delay. My family was getting drawn into sickness, We were all affected one after the other and medical prescriptions were not helping us. Till a friend directs us to contact Dr Kham for quick cure and total cleaning. Dr Kham is a miracle worker, It is never too late with Dr Kham contact him today with { dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com } You can also contact him on Whatsapp +2348159922297, And Visit his website to know more about him at https://herbal-dr-kham.jimdosite.com/ with his Blog at https://drkhamcaregiver.blogspot.com/
    He also Cure
    1) HIV/Aids Virus
    2) Hepatitis A, B and C
    3) Herpes
    4) Cancer
    5) ZIKA VIRUS
    6) COPD
    7) STROKE.
    8) Erectile Dysfunction
    9) Trichinosis
    10) Chlamydia
    11) Gonorrhea
    12) HPV
    13) Syphilis

    ReplyDelete
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  13. When i first heard about herbal remedy i never believe on such word until i had an encounter with a great traditional herbalist that was introduced to me by a friend that suffered from same genital herpes and was cure by this same man so i decided to contact him too to help get rid of my genital herpes virus i got from my cheating boyfriend.. all i was told to provide was just some useful information and some bush leaves, tree roots. He got them by himself and prepare the natural herbal cure and sent it to me  which i used for two week according to him. completely a month the pains the sore were gone, my skin were glowing which i haven't experience in long long time...my doctor said what happen to me is a miracle but i never told him i had herbal medication from Africa because he wouldn't approve it. my advise to all herpes patience is you should seek for the right herbal remedy and put an end to that virus.contact this herbalist today on  Email: (drwilliamscure@gmail.com,) or Whats App number +2347040461868, Website: https://drwilliamscure.wixsite.co.m/herbalhome

    ReplyDelete